Windows Server Interview Questions

Every organization needs someone to manage and monitor its server in order to maintain the workflow. As a result, the requirement for Windows Server or system administrator has been increased in the job market. Moreover, those who want to build a career in this field can use the training programs and get an appropriate certification to enhance their skills.

  1. Explain Windows Server.

Windows server refers to is a sequence of enterprise-class server operating systems specifically designed for end-users for sharing resources or services with multiple users. This offers extensive administrative control of data storage, applications, and corporate networks.

2. List out the various versions of Windows Server.

The version of windows servers are as follow:

  • Firstly, Windows Server 2003 (April 2003)
  • Secondly, Windows Server 2003 R2 (December 2005)
  • Thirdly, Windows Server 2008 (February 2008)
  • Windows Server 2008 R2 (October 2009)
  • Then, Windows Server 2012 (September 2012)
  • Windows Server 2012 R2 (October 2013)
  • After that, Windows Server 2016 (September 2016)
  • Lastly, Windows Server 2019 (October 2018)

3. What is Windows Server 2019?

Windows Server 2019 refers to the operating system used for bridging on-premises environments with Azure services. This,

  • Firstly, enables hybrid scenarios for maximizing existing investments.
  • Secondly, enhance security level and reduce business risk using the multiple layers of protection created into the operating system. 
  • Thirdly, helps in evolving data center infrastructure for achieving greater efficiency and scale with Hyper-converged Infrastructure (HCI). 
  • Lastly, helps developers and IT professional for building cloud-native applications using containers and micro-services.

4. What are the main features of Windows Server 2019?

  • Firstly, has a storage Migration Service that helps in inventory and migrating data, security, and configurations from legacy systems to Windows Server 2019.
  • Secondly, it has the capability to synchronize file servers to Azure. You can collect an organization’s file shares in Azure Files while keeping the flexibility and performance of an on-premises file server
  • Thirdly, it helps in bringing local predictive analytics capabilities native to Windows Server. These predictive capabilities are backed by a machine learning model which locally analyzes Windows Server system data for providing high-accuracy predictions for reducing operational expenses.
  • It uses an Azure network adaptor for easily connecting to Azure virtual networks. 
  • Next, it provides cluster-wide monitoring, cluster sets for creating large clusters, and Precision Time Protocol (PTP).
  • Lastly, it has VM protection that helps in repeating workloads running on VMs from a primary location to a secondary.

5. What does a System Administrator do?

The role of the System Administrator depends on the type of organization they are working in. However, they are responsible for installing, supporting, and maintaining servers and computers. Their day to day tasks includes:

  • Firstly, installing patches & OS Updates and reviewing the system logs access administration.
  • Secondly, providing permission access administration for users.
  • Thirdly, monitoring and planning for disaster recover
  • Then, building and Restoring system backups
  • After that, following the password requirements and accessing the control
  • Lastly, examining and performing the system audit logging

6. Explain the types of roles in the Windows Server.

The roles include:

  • Firstly, Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (ADLDS)
  • Secondly, Active Directory Rights Management Services (ADRMS)
  • Thirdly, Application Server
  • Fourthly, Active Directory Certificate Services (ADCS)
  • Active Directory Domain Services (ADDS)
  • Then, Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS)
  • DHCP Server
  • Next, DNS Server and FAX Server
  • After that, File and Storage Services
  • Hyper-V, Print and Document Services
  • Then, Network Policy and Access Services
  • After that, Remote Access and Remote Desktop Services
  • Next, Volume Activation Services
  • Web Server (IIS)
  • Lastly, Windows Deployment Services (WDS) and Windows Server Update Services (WSUS)

7. What is Active Directory?

Active Directory (AD) refers to an inventory organization that performs library operations for collecting objects like customer profiles, computers, etc. This controls the framework using Domain Controllers that are accessible at several zones with the Active Directory database

8. Define DNS.

DNS stands for Domain Name System which refers to the phonebook of the Internet. When users type domain names like ‘google.com’ into web browsers then, DNS finds the correct IP address for those sites. After that, browsers use those addresses for communicating with origin servers or CDN edge servers for accessing website information.

9. Why it is important to deploy local DNS servers?

A local DNS server helps in providing the local mapping of domain names to IP addresses. For resolving the remote requests related to the domain names on your network, this also provides record details to remote DNS servers.

10. Define the following:

1. Domain

Domain refers to an Azure directory logical structure which is a collection of users, objects, and computers sharing a familiar AD.

2. Tree

This refers to a collection of one or more domains.

3. Forest

This refers to a collection of one or more domain trees sharing a familiar global catalog. Moreover, this remains on top in the Active Directory structure.

11. What do you understand by Domain Controller?

Domain Controller refers to a server in windows based operating systems that provide secure authentication of users, computers. However, this is the core of the database for storing user’s account information and security enforcement. For example, using a domain controller, the user gets permission to allow or deny access to a particular folder in a particular domain.

12. Define Hyper-V.

Hyper-V refers to a virtualization tool provided by Microsoft. This is used for building multiple virtual machines on a single physical server along with managing and decreasing the cost of hardware and improving efficiency.

13. What is the role of LDAP?

LDAP stands for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol which is a directory service similar to the database that is used for storing computers, users, objects, etc. Moreover, it helps in adding, removing, and updating computer objects in the directory.

14. Define WDS.

WDS stands for Windows Deployment Services which is used in installing Windows operating system(OS) remotely over the network. This is basically a server technology from Microsoft that helps in the network-based installation of Windows operating systems. This acts as a successor to Remote Installation Services.

15. What do you understand by WSUS?

WSUS stands for Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) which refers to a computer program and network service developed by Microsoft. This helios the managing and handling of the distribution of updates of products in the Windows environment.

16. Explain PowerShell.

Windows PowerShell refers to Command-Line Shell developed by Microsoft. This is used for automating the administrative tasks that work both for local and remote Windows machines. However, on .NET Framework, PowerShell is built.

17. Define Replication.

Replication refers to a method in the active directory that is used for keeping domain controller syncs with other DC over the network.

18. Name the location of active directory databases operates.

The is include:

  • Firstly, NTDS.DIT
  • Secondly, Res1.log
  • Thirdly, Res2.log
  • Then, EDN.Chk
  • Lastly, EDB.Log

19. What do you understand by the non-authoritative and authoritative restore of an Active Directory (AD)?

  • A non-authoritative restoration refers to a process in which the domain controller is restored. And after that, the Active Directory (AD) objects are brought up to date by replicating the latest version of those objects from other domain controllers in the domain.
  • On the other hand, an authoritative restore refers to an operation in which the data that has been restored supersedes the data existing on other domain controllers in the domain. However, while performing an authoritative restore, the current versions of objects in the Active Directory are overwritten by the versions of the objects which were restored.

20. What is the process of installing an application if MSI is not available?

For adding the application using the Software Installer, the dot ZAP text file can be used rather than the windows installer

21. What is tattooing in terms of Registry?

Tattooing in the registry can be defined as suggesting to the users that they can change and view the preference of the customers that are not stored in the Registry portions. Moreover, even if the group policy is removed or changed, the user preference will still remain in the registry.

22. Name the DNS types of queries.

The types of queries in DNS are:

  • Firstly, Iterative Query
  • Secondly, Recursive Query

23. Explain the following:

1. Computer Process

Computer process refers to a computer program case that is executed repeatedly by a computer. This is capable of running numerous programs on a computer at the same time.

2. Thread

A thread consists of many executable programs that combine as a solitary process. For example, a thread can send a notification error to the customer. Therefore, an alternative can contract with the signals of error even though the third thread may execute the primary action.

24. Define DHCP.

DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol which is used for automatically allocating the IP address across the network with a defined scope.

25. Name the types of FSMO roles?

  • Firstly, Primary Domain Controller (PDC)
  • Secondly, Infrastructure master
  • Thirdly, Relative ID (RID) master
  • Then, Schema master
  • Lastly, Domain naming master

26. What do you understand by Group Policy?

Group Policy refers to a feature of Microsoft Windows NT which also belongs to the family of OS. This helps in controlling the work setting of computer accounts and user accounts. Further, it also provides the central configuration management of the operating systems, user settings, and applications in an Active Directory setting.

27. Explain Group Policy Objects (GPO) and name its types.

GPO refers to the setting that manages the client records at the workplace, and also at computer records. This helps in explaining the programming establishment, security alternatives, upkeep choices and library-dependent arrangements, folder redirection choices, and content choices. Further, there are two types of GPO:

  • Firstly, Local GPO. These are kept on close devices.
  • Secondly, Non-local GPO. These can be accessed from the Active Directory and are kept on a domain controller.

28. Is it possible to associate a third-party directory service to an Active Directory?

Yes, using the various versions of Microsoft. dirXML or LDAP it is possible to associate third-party directory services to Active Directory.

29. Name the commands for checking TCP/IP configurations.

There are two commands for checking the TCP/IP configurations:

1. Ipconfig

This is for checking the IP setup of the computer. Moreover, you can also use it for reestablishing the IP address of the users if it is defined by a DHCP server.

2. Ping

This is for checking the link between the computer in use and the other computers.

30. What is the role of IntelliMirror?

IntelliMirror helps in settling the settings of desktop, stored files, and applications for users especially the one moving among workstations and who works offline.

31. Explain the basic functionality of the domain controller?

The domain controller is responsible for verifying the customer’s too many networks. Moreover, it also brings a set of objects that are involved in the Active Directory.

32. Explaining the role of local DNS servers.

A local DNS server provides the local mapping of complete skillful domains to IP addresses. They provide record data to remote DNS servers for resolving requests concerning the domains on the network

33. Define INODE.

The inode refers to a data structure in a Unix-style file system that explains a file-system object like a file or a directory. Every inode can store the attributes and disk block locations of the object’s data. However, the file-system object attributes may include metadata including owner and permission data.

34. What do you understand by RAID in Windows Server?

RAID stands for Redundant Array of Independent Disks which is used for storing the same data at a different place. This strategy helps in creating fault tolerance and increase storage capacity. However, on different drives, it provides access to combine one or more volumes for accessing it by a single drive letter

35. Define the term Global Catalog.

The Global Catalog refers to a database that consists of all the data relating to objects in Active Directory environment domains.

36. Explain the following:

1. Domain local groups 

These are for allocating access approvals to international groups of domains for local resources of the domain.

2. Global groups 

These provide access to other trusted domains’ resources.

3. Universal groups 

This helps in providing access to all trusted domain resources.

37. Is it possible to restore Active Directory Partitions?

Yes, you can restore the objects from the domain and configuration partition.

38. Name the types of partitions in the active directory.

There are four types of partitions:

  • Firstly, the Configuration partition
  • Secondly, the Application partition
  • Thirdly, Schema partition
  • Lastly, Domain partition

39. Define Configuration Partition.

This is for storing all the data of Active Directory. The data here consists of site-link, Site, subnet, etc. Further, the partition duplicates all domain controllers that are available in the Forest

40. Explain the difference between application and scheme partition.

  • Application partition is for storing the information of applications in Active Directory. For example, ForestDNSZones and DomainDNSZones.
  • Schema Partition is for storing all the information of the objects and their qualities. Further, this duplicates to other domain controllers in the Forest.

41. Define Domain Partitions.

This is for storing the domain information like a computer, user, printer, group, etc. Further, it duplicates to all domain controllers in the domain.

42. Explaining the DHCP server configuring process for assigning the same IP address to define devices whenever there is a change or removing of the address?

For configuring the DHCP server, you can build a reservation for the device. However, for creating a reservation, you must know the MAC hardware address of the device. Further, for discovering the MAC address for a network device you can use the IP config command-line utilities.

43. What do you understand by the SYSVOL folder?

This refers to a set of files and folders placed on the local hard disk of each domain controller in a domain. They are replicated by the File Replication Service with having files containing group or user policy details.

44. What is a Windows DNS server?

The Windows DNS server means an area name framework used as a kind of perspective table for coordinating the space names to various IP addresses.

45. Explain the various zones in the Windows DNS server.

  • Firstly, Primary Zone. In this, the record is provided as a text file with the typical extension “.DNS”
  • Secondly, Secondary Zone. This is a support for the important server that goes about load adjusting and provides for non-critical failure. 
  • Lastly, Stub Zone. This consists of the name server and SOA records that help in reducing the DNS seek orders.

46. Differentiate Windows and Windows Server.

  • Windows Server OS was released for server systems like Workstation, Rack, Tower, etc. This is capable of multiple users who can log in and work continuously. Further, this has the support of CPU(64), cores(320), and RAM(24TB).
  • Windows OS was released for user systems like desktop, Laptop, Tablet, Mobile, X-box, etc. In this, multiple user accounts can be created, but, only one user can log in at a time. Further, this has the support of limited CPU(2), core(256), and RAM(2TB).

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